Math functions can be considered as programming heart or brain: they are paramount to resolve any and all logical problems that may arise. In PHP, the mathematical operators are worked out very simply, also in a standardized way like in other languages.

Then we go to a simple example that shows how the operations can be performed:

<?php

$var2 = 2;

$var = $var2 +2; // Sum

$var = $var2 -2; // Subtraction

$var = $var2/2; // Division

$var = $var2*2; // Multiplication

?>

Note that the mathematical operators do not change, all to facilitate the assimilation and the lives of those who need to solve complex problems.

Besides the basic operators, the language still offers some ready calculations. The main ones will be showed now, all aimed at making programmer’s life easier.

**ABS FUNCTION**

This function returns the absolute value of a variable, as shown in the example:

<?php

$abs = **abs**(-4.2); // $abs = 4.2; (double/float)

$abs2 = **abs**(5); // $abs2 = 5; (interger)

$abs3 = **abs**(-5); // $abs3 = 5; (interger)

?>

**CEIL FUNCTION**

This function rounds the value reported to the nearest integer, according to a mathematical rule. As shown in the example:

<?php

echo **ceil**(4.3); // 5

echo **ceil**(9.999); // 10

echo **ceil**(-3.14); // -3

?>

**FLOOR FUNCTION**

This function rounds the fractional values to the lowest value, for example:

<?php

echo **floor**(4.3); // 4

echo **floor**(9.999); // 9

echo **floor**(-3.14); // -4

?>

**MAX FUNCTION**

From the numbers of an array, the function checks which one is bigger, as the example:

<?php

echo **max**(1, 3, 5, 6, 7); // 7

echo **max**(array(2, 4, 5)); // 5

?>

**MIN FUNCTION**

From the number of an array, the function checks which one is the smallest, as the example:

<?php

echo **min**(1, 3, 5, 6, 7); // 1

echo **min**(array(2, 4, 5)); // 2

?>

**MT_RAND FUNCTION**

This function returns a random value. If the start and end parameters are informed, the generated value will be in the range between them. For example:

<?php

echo **mt_rand**() . “n”;

echo **mt_rand**() . “n”;

echo **mt_rand**(5, 15);

?>

The above example will output something similar to:

1604716014

1478613278

6

**SQRT FUNCTION**

The square root calculation can be done using this function, as shown in the example:

<?php

echo **sqrt**(9); // 3

echo **sqrt**(10); // 3.16227766 …

?>

A number of other functions can be found in the official documentation of the language. The ones shown above are the most common, used for solving practically all kinds of calculations. Anyway, it is important to know and get referrals as a particular problem may have a ready solution. So, knowing where to seek information turns out to be highly relevant and productive.

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